Statement and Assumption

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Give answer
(A) If only assumption I is implicit
(B) If only assumption II is implicit
(C) If either I or II is implicit
(D) If neither I nor II is implicit
(E) If both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Shalini made an application to the bank for a loan of Rs. 1,80,000 by mortgaging her house to the bank and promised to repay it within five years.

Assumptions:
I. The bank has a practice of granting loans for Rs. 1,00,000 and above.

II. The bank accepts house as collateral security against such loans.

Answer: (e)

The fact that Shalini has applied for a loan of Rs. 1,80,000 implies that the bank can grant a loan above Rs. 1,00,000. So, I is implicit. II also follows directly from the statement and so is implicit.

Statement:
The X-Airlines has decided to increase the passenger fare by 15 percent with immediate effect.

Assumptions:
I. The demand for seats of X-Airlines may remain unchanged even after the hike of fare.

II. Other airline companies may also hike the passenger fares.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, such decisions are taken only after making sure that it will not affect the company's business adversely. So, I is implicit. However, the impact of this increase on other airlines cannot be ascertained. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Lack of stimulation in the first four or five years of life can have adverse consequences.

Assumptions:
I. A great part of the development of observed intelligence occurs in the earliest years of life.

II. 50 percent of the measurable intelligence at age of 17 is already predictable by the age of four.

Answer: (a)

The lacking in first four or five years can be adverse because it is the main period of development. So, I is implicit. Since nothing is mentioned about the predictability of intelligence, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Cases of food poisoning due to consumption of liquor are increasing in rural areas.

Assumptions:
I. Percentage of people consuming liquor is more in rural areas.

II. There are many unauthorized spurious liquor shops in the rural areas.

Answer: (b)

The statement talks of number of cases of food poisoning due to consumption of liquor and not of the number of cases consuming liquor. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the statement indicates that people in rural areas are getting spurious or low-grade liquor and no check is being kept on shops selling liquor there. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Please note that the company will provide accommodation to only outside candidates if selected.’ – A condition in an advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. The local candidates would be having some other arrangement for their stay.

II. The company plans to select only local candidates.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that the company intends to provide accommodation only to outside candidates. This means that local candidates would have to arrange accommodation on their own and that the company may select local as well as outside candidates. Thus, only I is implicit.

Statement:
The regulatory authority has set up a review committee to find out the reasons for unstable stock prices.

Assumptions:
I. The investors may regain confidence in stock market by this decision.

II. The review committee has the expertise to find out the causes for volatility in the stock market.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, I mentions the aim for which the step talked about in the statement, has been undertaken while II mentions the essential requirement for it. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Greater public participation results in good civic governance. – Statement of Municipal Commissioner of City A.

Assumptions:
I. The municipal office is not competent to effect good civic administration.

II. Good civic governance is a matter of collective will and effort of the people and administration.

Answer: (b)

The statement stresses on the fact that though civic governance is the task of the municipal body, but all the tasks done come out to be more fruitful if the general public lends a helping hand in the same. So, only II is implicit.

Statement:
Safety and health practices in many Indian companies are well below the international standards.

Assumptions:
I. International standards of health and safety are ideal and unrealistic.

II. Indian organizations do not consider safety and health management as their prime social responsibility.

Answer: (b)

The statement talks about the safety and health practices in Indian companies being far below international standards. It is clearly a criticism of Indian organizations not paying considerable attention to these aspects. So, II is implicit. The international standards demand perfection and are, in no way, non-achievable. So, I is not implicit.

Statement:
Because of the large number of potholes in road X, reaching airport in time has become difficult.

Assumptions:
I. Reaching airport in time may not be always necessary.

II. There is no other convenient road to the airport.

Answer: (b)

The statement presents the issue of 'not reaching airport in time' as a problem. This means that reaching airport in time is necessary. So, I is not implicit. Besides, it is mentioned that reaching airport in time has become difficult due to large number of potholes in road X. This implies that road X is the only possible way. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Beware of dogs, our dogs do not bark, but they are trained to distinguish between genuine guests and intruders.

Assumptions:
I. Barking dogs bite rarely.

II. Our dogs could be dangerous for intruders.

Answer: (b)

The statement clearly warns the visitors to beware of dogs as they are trained to welcome the guests and intruders differently. So, II is implicit. I is vague and hence, it is not implicit.

Statement:
The first step in treating addicts is to re-establish their lost ties, for which a continuous personal attention should be paid to the addicts under treatment.

Assumptions:
I. Addicts under treatment respond better when shown personal interest.

II. Addiction and strained relationships are intimately connected.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, treatment of addiction requires personal attention as the first step. So, I is implicit. Also, since intimacy and personal attention are required to treat addicts, it implies that addiction arises out of frustration due to strained relationships. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Like a mad man, I decided to follow him.

Assumptions:
I. I am not a mad man.

II. I am a mad man.

Answer: (c)

The words 'Like a mad man' show that either a person is really mad or he is not mad but acted like mad. So, either I or II is implicit.

Statement:
“You should not grant him leave in this week due to exigency of work.” – A supervisor advises the administrative officer.

Assumptions:
I. Request for leave can be turned down also.

II. The supervisor has reviewed the work required to be done during the said period.

Answer: (e)

The advice is given to turn down the request for leave. So, I is implicit. The mention of the 'exigency of work' makes II implicit.

Statement:
Of all the radio sets manufactured in India, the ‘X’ brand has the largest sale.

Assumptions:
I. The sale of all the radio sets manufactured in India is known.

II. The manufacturing of no other radio set in India is as large as ‘X’ brand radio.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the comparison could not be made without knowing the sale of all the radio sets. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions only that the sale is largest and nothing is mentioned about the manufacture. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The coffee powder of company X is quite better in taste than the much advertised coffee of company Y.

Assumptions:
I. If your product is not good, your spend more on advertisement.

II. Some people are tempted to buy a product by the advertisement.

Answer: (b)

Since the statement holds the product of company X more superior in quality than that of Y which spends more on advertisement, so I is not implicit. According to the statement, the product of company Y is more known because of more advertisement. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
The district administration has issued a circular to all the farmers under its jurisdiction advising them for not using pesticides indiscriminately as it may pollute the ground water.

Assumptions:
I. People may stop using ground water if the farmers continue to use pesticides indiscriminately.

II. Farmers may refrain from using pesticides indiscriminately.

Answer: (b)

The district administration has issued a circular to make the farmers aware of hazards that indiscriminate use of pesticides poses to ground water and plead them to refrain from the same. So, II is implicit. However, I cannot be assumed from the given statement and so it is not implicit.

Statement:
The campaign of ‘Keep your city clean’ started by the Civil Council did not evoke any response from the citizens.

Assumptions:
I. People do not desire to keep their city clean.

II. The Civil Council has failed in its campaign.

Answer: (e)

According to the statement, the campaign did not get any response from citizens. This means that people are not interested in keeping the city clean and the campaign has failed. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
All existing inequalities can be reduced, if not utterly eradicated, by action of governments or by revolutionary change of government.

Assumptions:
I. Inequality is a man-made phenomenon.

II. No person would voluntarily part with what he possesses.

Answer: (a)

Since inequality can be reduced, it means that it is not natural but created. So, I is implicit. Nothing is mentioned about people's response. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
A’s advice to B – “Go to Jammu via Amritsar – the shortest route”.

Assumptions:
I. B wishes to go to Jammu.

II. A gives advice to everybody.

Answer: (a)

A has advised B the route to Jammu. This means that B wishes to go to Jammu. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions only A's advice to B. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The education of a student at collegiate level, not taking into account maintenance expenses, costs four hundred rupees a year. Collegiate education is thus drawing heavily upon the national resources of an impoverished community. So college education should be restricted to a brilliant few.

Assumptions:
I. Our resources are very limited.

II. Only a few students should be admitted to the colleges.

Answer: (e)

The use of the words 'impoverished community' in the statement makes I implicit while the phrase 'college education should be restricted to a brilliant few' makes II implicit.

Statement:
‘Double your money in five months.’ – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. The assurance is not genuine.

II. People want their money to grow.

Answer: (b)

The truth or falsity of the promise made in the statement cannot be judged. So, I is not implicit. Since the concerned firm advertises with the assurance that money can be doubled quickly by investing with it, so II is implicit.

Statement:
Why don’t you go to the court if the employer does not pay you the Provident Fund contribution?

Assumptions:
I. Courts can intervene in matters of dispute between employer and employees.

II. It is obligatory for the employer to pay the Provident Fund contribution to the employees.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the statement encourages one to go to court to get his Provident Fund from his employer. This implies that the issue comes under the jurisdiction of courts and that it is the right of the employee to claim his Provident Fund. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
His recent investment in the shares of Company A is only a gamble.

Assumptions:
I. He may incur loss on his investment.

II. He may gain from his investment.

Answer: (c)

The use of the world 'gamble' indicates that he may either gain or lose in the deal.

Statement:
You know that your suit is excellent when people ask about your tailor who tailored the suit.

Assumptions:
I. People do not ask about your tailor if your suit is not good.

II. The people want to know the criterion of an excellent suit.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that if the people ask about the tailor, your suit is good. This means that people ask only in the situation when the thing is good. So, I is implicit. The criteria of an excellent suit is not mentioned. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Children are influenced more by their teachers nowadays.

Assumptions:
I. The children consider teachers as their models.

II. A large amount of children’s time is spent in school.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, it is because children consider teachers as their model that they are more influenced by them. So, I is implicit. It is not necessary that the children are influenced by teachers because they spend much time in school. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Apart from the entertainment value of television, its educational value cannot be ignored.

Assumptions:
I. People take television to be a means of entertainment only.

II. The educational value of television is not realised properly.

Answer: (e)

The statement makes the first assumption clear though educational value is not to be ignored. So, I is implicit. That the educational value must not be ignored also shows that educational value is not realised properly. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Of all the newspapers published in Mumbai, readership of the “Times” is the largest in the Metropolis.

Assumptions:
I. ‘Times’ is not popular in mofussil areas.

II. ‘Times’ has the popular feature of cartoons on burning social and political issues.

Answer: (d)

Neither the volume of readership of the 'Times' in areas other than the Metropolis nor the reason for its huge acclamation is evident from the statement So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
Films have become indispensable for the entertainment of people.

Assumptions:
I. Films are the only media of entertainment.

II. People enjoy films.

Answer: (b)

'Films are indispensable' does not mean that they are the only means of entertainment. So, I is not implicit. Clearly, II follows from the statement. So, it is implicit.

Statement:
The government has decided to pay compensation to the tune of Rs. 1 lakh to the family members of those who are killed in railway accidents.

Assumptions:
I. The government has enough funds to meet the expenses due to compensation.

II. There may be reduction in incidents of railway accidents in near future.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the amount of compensation must have been decided keeping in mind the monetary position of the Government. So, I is implicit. However, nothing can be said about the frequency of railway accidents in future. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Be humble even after being victorious.

Assumptions:
I. Many people are humble after being victorious.

II. Generally people are not humble.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the nature of the people. So, I is not implicit. Also, the statement gives an advice of being humble even after being victorious. This means that generally people are not humble. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Government has permitted unaided colleges to increase their fees.

Assumptions:
I. Unaided colleges are in financial difficulties.

II. Aided colleges do not need to increase fees.

Answer: (a)

Unaided colleges have been allowed to increase their fees. This means that they are in financial difficulties. So, I is implicit. Nothing is mentioned about the aided colleges. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“This drink can be had either as it is, or after adding ice to it.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I.People differ in their preferences.

II. Some people will get attracted to the drink as it can be had as it is.

Answer: (e)

The advertisement tells the different ways in which the drink can be had. This means that different people prefer to have it in a different way and that some people would prefer it only because it can be taken in a particular manner. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“I have not received telephone bills for nine months inspite of several complaints” – A telephone customer’s letter to the editor of a daily

Assumptions:
I. Every customer has a right to get bills regularly from the telephone company.

II. The customer’s complaints point to defect in the services which are expected to be corrected.

Answer: (e)

The customer's eagerness to get the bills makes I implicit. Besides, the customer has written to the editor to bring the malfunctioning of the department to public notice. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Please do not use lift while going down – an instruction on the top floor of a five-storey building.

Assumptions:
I. While going down, the lift is unable to carry any load.

II. Provision of lift is a matter of facility and not of right.

Answer: (b)

The statement requests people not to use lift while moving down. This implies that the lift may be used to move up and the request has been made so that more people can use the lift for ascending which would otherwise cause more physical stress than going down the stairs. So, only II is implicit.

Statement:
Never before such a lucid book was available on the topic.

Assumptions:
I. Some other books were available on this topic.

II. You can write lucid books on very few topics.

Answer: (a)

It follows from the statement that books on this topic were available before also but they were not 'lucid'. So, I is implicit. But a general comment as II cannot be made from the given statement. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The government has decided to disinvest large chunk of its equity in select public sector undertakings for a better fiscal management.

Assumptions:
I. The amount generated out of the disinvestment process may reduce substantially the mounting fiscal deficits.

II. There will be enough demand in the market for the shares of these undertakings.

Answer: (a)

The fact given in I directly follows from the phrase '..... for a better fiscal management' in the statement. So, I is implicit. However, the public response to the new policy cannot be ascertained. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
It will be a substantial achievement in the field of education if one provides one school for every village in our country and enforce attendance.

Assumptions:
I. Children in villages do not attend school regularly.

II. Providing school to every village is desirable.

Answer: (e)

The statement lays stress on enforcing attendance. This implies that children in villages do not attend school regularly. So, I is implicit. Besides, the statement calls 'one school for every village' a 'substantial achievement'. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Detergents should be used to clean clothes.

Assumptions:
I. Detergents form more lather.

II. Detergents help to dislodge grease and dirt.

Answer: (b)

Nothing is mentioned about lather formation by the detergent. So, I is not implicit. Also, detergents should be used as they clean clothes better and more easily. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
The Government has decided to levy 2 percent on the tax amount payable for funding drought relief programmes.

Assumptions:
I. The Government does not have sufficient money to fund drought relief programmes.

II. The amount collected by way of surcharge may be adequate to fund these drought relief programmes.

Answer: (e)

Since a surcharge has been levied to fund drought relief programmes, it follows that the Government does not have sufficient money for the same. So, I is implicit. Besides, the percentage of surcharge must have been decided after studying the expected inflow in relation to amount of funds required. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“The bridge was built at the cost of Rs. 128 crores and even civil bus service is not utilizing it, what a pity to see it grossly underutilized.” – A citizen’s view on a new flyover linking east and west sides of a suburb.

Assumptions:
I. The building of such bridges does not serve any public objective.

II. There has to be some accountability and utility of money spent on public projects.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, the statement expresses grave concern over a newly-built flyover not being utilized by public. This implies that such projects need to be taken up only after working out their utility and that the huge expenditure incurred on building such structures is worthwhile only if they prove useful for the public. Thus, only II is implicit.

Statement:
The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

Assumptions:
I. Railways should give concession only to needy persons.

II. Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that concessions should not be given to people who can afford to spend holidays in hill stations. This means they should be given only to needy persons. So, I is implicit. But, II does not follow from the statement and is not implicit.

Statement:
If it is easy to become an engineer, I don’t want to be an engineer.

Assumptions:
I. An individual aspires to be professional.

II. One desires to achieve a thing which is hard earned.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the professional nature of the job. So, I is not implicit. The statement hints that one rejects a thing that is easy to achieve. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
A warning in a train compartment – “To stop train, pull chain. Penalty for improper use Rs. 500.”

Assumptions:
I. Some people misuse the alarm chain.

II. On certain occasions, people may want to stop a running train.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the penalty is imposed to prevent people from misusing the alarm chain. This means that some people misuse it. So, I is implicit. The alarm chain is provided to stop the running train in times of urgency. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The State government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers during the next financial year.

Assumptions:
I. There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school teachers.

II. The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the government may not finally appoint such a large number of primary school teachers.

Answer: (a)

Such decisions as given in the statement are taken only after taking the existing vacancies into consideration. So, I implicit while II isn't.

Statement:
“If you trouble me, I will slap you.” – A mother warns her child.

Assumptions:
I. With the warning, the child may stop troubling her.

II. All children are basically naughty.

Answer: (a)

The mother warns her child with the expectation that he would stop troubling her. So, I is implicit. The general nature of children cannot be derived from the statement. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions:
I. There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.

II. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

Answer: (a)

I directly follows from the statement and so is implicit. Also, the statement is a suggestion and does not tell about a government policy or its position of funds. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees.” – In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions:
I. Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.

II. Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

Answer: (b)

Assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions:
I. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.

II. The schools do not admit children after six years of age.

Answer: (a)

Since the statement talks of putting the child in school at the age of 5, it means that the child is mentally prepared for the same at this age. So, I is implicit. But nothing about admission after 6 years of age is mentioned in the statement. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation.” – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:
I. The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.

II. Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

Answer: (e)

The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual's worth shall be reviewed (during probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.