Statement and Assumption

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Give answer
(A) If only assumption I is implicit
(B) If only assumption II is implicit
(C) If either I or II is implicit
(D) If neither I nor II is implicit
(E) If both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
The party president has directed that no member of the party will give press briefing or interviews to governments and private T.V. channels about the discussion in scheduled meeting of the party.

Assumptions:
I. Party members will observe this directive of the president.

II. The general public will not come to know about the happenings in the scheduled meeting of the party.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the party president lays down the policies for its members. So, I is implicit. Also, when no party member would publicly reveal the happenings in the meeting, nobody will come to know. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The end of a financial year is the ideal time to take a look at the performance of various companies.

Assumptions:
I. All the companies take such a review at the end of a financial year.

II. The performance data of various companies is available.

Answer: (e)

Since both I and II follow from the given statement, so both are implicit.

Statement:
The management of XYZ Pvt. Ltd. asked the workers’ union to call off strike immediately otherwise the management would be forced to close down the factory.

Assumptions:
I. No alternative other than closing down the factory is left for the management of XYZ Pvt. Ltd

II. Such threat may have some effect on the workers’ union.

Answer: (b)

Such a warning is usually given to the workers to threaten them that they would lose their job and income forever if they didn't mend their ways. So, only II is implicit.

Statement:
Nobody can predict as to how long our country would take to contain the unfortunate and disastrous terrorist activities.

Assumptions:
I. It is impossible to put on end to terrorist activities

II. Efforts to control the terrorist activities are on.

Answer: (b)

The statement expresses concern over the issue as to when our country would be able to curb terrorism completely. This means that efforts are on and it is quite possible to put an end to terrorist activities although it could take longer. So, only II is implicit.

Statement:
Imprisonment for 27 years made Nelson Mandela, the President.

Assumptions:
I. Only who will be imprisoned for 27 years will become the President.

II. To become the President, imprisonment is a qualification.

Answer: (d)

The statement implies that it was not 'literally' imprisonment, but Nelson Mandela's dedicated service to the nation and his struggle for freedom despite various hardships that won him the desired public appeal to be elected the President. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
In case of any difficulty about this case, you may contact our company’s lawyer.

Assumptions:
I. Each company has a lawyer of its own.

II. The company’s lawyer is thoroughly briefed about this case.

Answer: (b)

No decision can be made regarding other companies. So, I is not implicit. Since one is advised to contact the company's lawyer in case of any problem, it means that the lawyer is fully acquainted with the case. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
This year most of the shops and departmental stores are offering prizes and discounts on purchases to attract customers.

Assumptions:
I. The shops and departmental stores have so far earned a lot of profit, so now they have started sharing it with the customers.

II. Lots of goods are available but the sale is not shooting up. There is no cheer for the customers.

Answer: (b)

That someone has earned a lot is no reason to share the profit margin with the customers. So, I is not implicit. Clearly, the offers have been announced to attract more customers and boost up the sale. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Provide mid-day meals to the children in primary schools to increase the number of students attending schools.

Assumptions:
I. Mid-day meals will attract the children to the schools.

II. Those children who are otherwise deprived of good food will attend the schools.

Answer: (a)

Providing mid-day meals would attract more number of children as an added privilege and not because the children are deprived of good meals at home. So, only I is implicit.

Statement:
The patient’s condition would improve after operation.

Assumptions:
I. The patient can be operated upon in this condition.

II. The patient cannot be operated upon in this condition.

Answer: (a)

The fact that patient's condition would improve after the operation clearly implies that the patient can be operated upon in this condition. So, I is implicit.

Statement:
The city bus transport corporation has decided to change routes of three buses plying between paints A and B in the city to make them economically viable.

Assumptions:
I. These buses may get more passengers on the revised routes.

II. Many people residing on the old routes may not avail bus services.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that the routes have been so changed as to make them economically viable. This means that new stoppages have been so selected as to cater to a larger number of people than before. So, I is implicit. Further, the people already travelling by these buses would not be devoid of the same and they would also get the facility in their vicinity, be it the same bus or another one. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
‘Guests should be provided lunch.’ – A tells B.

Assumptions:
I. Unless told, lunch may not be provided.

II. Guests will stay during lunch time.

Answer: (e)

Since both I and II follow from the statement, so both are implicit.

Statement:
Traffic jams on most of the roads in the city have become a regular feature during monsoon.

Assumptions:
I. Material used for road construction cannot withstand the fury of monsoon resulting into innumerable pot holes on the roads.

II. Number of vehicles coming on the roads is much more in monsoon as compared to other seasons.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the problem of traffic jams arises during monsoons not because of increased number of vehicles but due to slow movement of traffic on account of bad roads. So, only I is implicit.

Statement:
Read this book to get detailed and most comprehensive information on this issue.

Assumptions:
I. The person who wants this information can read.

II. There are other books available on this issue.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, I directly follows from the statement. So, I is implicit. Also, according to the statement, this particular book gives 'most comprehensive' information on the issue. So, it can be assumed that other books are also available on this topic. Thus, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The present examination system needs overhauling thoroughly.

Assumptions:
I. The present examination system is obsolete.

II. Overhauling results in improvement.

Answer: (e)

The 'thorough' overhauling is needed only in case of an obsolete system. So, I is implicit. Overhauling is done for improvement. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The Principal instructed all the teachers to be careful in class because some students may disturb other students.

Assumptions:
I. The teachers will handle the situation properly and they will point out the naughty students.

II. The students will welcome the decision of the Principal.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, teachers have been instructed to maintain discipline in the class and point out the naughty students who do not let other students study. So, I is implicit. Besides, the implementation of the instructions would surely help good students to concentrate on their studies and ensure a good working atmosphere in the class. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“If I am not well you will have to go for the meeting.” – A manager tells his subordinate.

Assumptions:
I. It is not necessary that only manager level personnel attend the meeting.

II. If the manager is well, he would himself like to go for the meeting.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the subordinate can attend the meeting as told by the Manager only when there is no inhibition. So, I is implicit. The subordinate is told to go only in case when the Manager is not well. This also shows the urgency to attend the meeting. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“Use our product to improve memory of our child. It is based on natural herbs and has no harmful side effects.” – An advertisement of a pharmaceutical company.

Assumptions:
I. People generally opt for a medical product which is useful and has no harmful side effects.

II. Improving memory of child is considered as important by many parents.

Answer: (e)

An advertisement highlights only those features of a product, which are liked by people and are also desirable. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
I have written several letters to the branch manager regarding my account in the bank but did not receive any reply so far.

Assumptions:
I. Branch manager is expected to read letters received from the customer.

II. Branch manager is expected to reply to the letters received from the customers.

Answer: (e)

Since both I and II follow from the given statement, so both are implicit.

Statement:
I cannot contact you on phone from Karshik.

Assumptions:
I. Telephone facility is not available at Karshik.

II. Nowadays it is difficult to contact on phone.

Answer: (a)

The statement indicates the impossibility of phone contact from Karshik. Thus, the fact in I may be assumed from the given statement. So, I is implicit However, II indicates difficulty, not the impossibility of contact as is indicated in the statement. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The government has set up a fact finding mission to look into the possible reasons for the recent violence in the area.

Assumptions:
I. The mission may be able to come up with credible information about the incidents.

II. The people in the area may cooperate with the mission and come forward to give detailed information related to the incidents.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the plan of the government is to work out the causes for spread of violence and then take adequate steps to uproot them. So, I is implicit. Besides, this step of the government is for the welfare of the general public only. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The company has the right to reject any application form without furnishing any reason while sorting the list of candidates for interview – A condition mentioned in the employment notice.

Assumptions:
I. It is desirable to call only eligible candidates for interview.

II. The company believes in following impartial practice in all its functions.

Answer: (a)

Since the statement talks of the company short-listing the candidates to be called for interview, so I is implicit. However, nothing can be deduced about whether the company would make a partial or fair selection of candidates. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Success is how much a person bounces up after hitting the bottom.

Assumptions:
I. Success requires conscious efforts without being discouraged by failure.

II. Failure cannot be considered an acceptable thing.

Answer: (a)

The statement defines 'Success' as 'bouncing up'. This means that success can be achieved by striving hard to touch the top, without being harassed by any of the hurdles which come in the way. So, I is implicit. The fact in II cannot be assumed from the given statement.

Statement:
“Those who are appearing for this examination for the first time should be helped in filling up the form.” – An instruction to invigilating staff.

Assumptions:
I. The form is somewhat complicated.

II. Candidates can appear more than once for this examination.

Answer: (b)

The statement mentions that only those students are to be helped who are filling up the form for the first time. This does not mean that the form is complicated/So, I is not implicit. However, II follows from the statement and so is implicit.

Statement:
The Parent Teacher Association (PTA) of a school has informed the Principal that they will not send their children to the school unless the school – authority reduces the fees with immediate effect.

Assumptions:
I. Majority of the parents may agree with the PTA and may not send their wards with the school

II. The school authority may accede to the demand of the PTA and reduce the fees.

Answer: (e)

The PTA is an association which would surely reflect the parents' interests and act to get them fulfilled. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Please consult us before making any decision on investment.

Assumptions:
I. You may take a wrong decision if you don’t consult us.

II. It is important to take a right decision.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the statement was spoken for fear that the other person may take a wrong decision. So, I is implicit. Again, the statement confirms that it is important to take the right decision. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Most people who stop smoking gain weight.

Assumptions:
I. If one stops smoking, one will gain weight.

II. If one does not stop smoking, one will not gain weight.

Answer: (d)

The statement talks of most people' and not 'all'. So, I is not necessarily true. Thus, I is not implicit. The condition, if one does not stop smoking, cannot be deduced from the statement. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
Among all the articles, the prices of personal computers show the highest decline from June 2005 to December 2005.

Assumptions:
I. Comparative prices of all the articles in June and December 2005 were available.

II. Prices of personal computers were higher in the first six months than the last six months of 2005.

Answer: (e)

Since prices of personal computers show the highest decline among all the articles, it implies that the comparative prices of all the articles was known. So, I is implicit. Also, it being given that prices of computers showed decline during the last six months, it means that they were higher in the first six months. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
“Apply nets on windows to prevent the entrance of mosquitoes in the house.”

Assumptions:
I. The entering of mosquitoes from entrances other than windows is desirable.

II. Nets are not available to apply on doors.

Answer: (d)

The statement talks of a way to keep mosquitoes away. This means that entry of mosquitoes in the house is not desirable. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the statement advises using nets on windows. So, nothing about the use of nets on doors, can be deduced. Thus, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
Sachin wrote to his brother at Bangalore to collect personally the application form from the University for the Post-graduation Course in Mathematics.

Assumptions:
I. The University may issue application forms to a person other than the prospective student.

II. Sachin’s brother may receive the letter well before the last date of collecting application forms.

Answer: (e)

Since Sachin has asked his brother to collect the form, it is evident that the university may issue the form to anybody and that Sachin's brother would receive the letter before the last date of collecting the forms. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Why don’t you invite Anthony for the Christmas party this year?

Assumptions:
I. Anthony is not from the same city.

II. Unless invited Anthony will not attend the party.

Answer: (b)

Anthony's place of living is not mentioned in the statement. So, I is not implicit. Assumption II follows from the statement and so it is implicit.

Statement:
“To buy a X – T.V, contact Y – the sole agent of X-T.V.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. People generally prefer to buy T.V. through sole agent.

II. The T.V. producing companies do not sell their products directly.

Answer: (d)

The advertisement persuades the people to meet the sole agent Y to buy X-T. V. This does not mean that the people prefer to buy TV. through the sole agent or that the TV. companies only sell their products through the sole agents. So, both I and II are not implicit.

Statement:
The State Government has abolished the scheme of providing concessional air ticket to students.

Assumptions:
I. Students will not travel by air in future.

II. The students who resort to travel by air can bear the expenses of air ticket.

Answer: (b)

The scheme has been abolished not to discourage the students from travelling by air but keeping in mind that the abolition of scheme won't stop them from travelling by air. So, only II is implicit.

Statement:
A sentence in the letter to the candidates called for written examination – ‘You have to bear your expenses on travel etc’.

Assumptions:
I. If not clarified all the candidates may claim reimbursement of expenses.

II. Many organizations reimburse expenses on travel to candidates called for written examination.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, not mentioning the condition may provoke all the candidates to demand their claim. So, I is implicit. The condition is mentioned because some companies do reimburse the travel expenses. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
If you have any problems, bring them to me.

Assumptions:
I. You have some problems.

II. I can solve any problem.

Answer: (b)

The word 'If shows that 'you' do not necessarily have problems. So, I is not implicit. Also, the statement states that problems will be solved by 'me'. So II is implicit.

Statement:
“Please do not wait for me, I may be late, start taking lunch as soon as the guests arrive. – A message from a Director of a Company to his office managers.

Assumptions:
I. Keeping guests waiting is not desirable.

II. Lunch may not be ready in time.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the Director instructs his managers not to keep the guests waiting because of him and to proceed with lunch soon after their arrival. This implies that lunch would be ready in time. So, only I is implicit.

Statement:
“Ensure a good Slight’s sleeps for your family with safe and effective X mosquito coil.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. X mosquito coil is better than any other mosquito coil.

II. A good night’s sleep is desirable.

Answer: (b)

The statement mentions the good qualities of X coil but this does not mean it is the best. So, I is not implicit. Besides, an advertisement highlights the feature which is desirable by customers and can lure them. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Vitamin E tablets improve circulation, keep your complexion in a glowing condition.

Assumptions:
I. People like a glowing complexion.

II. Complexion becomes dull in the absence of circulation.

Answer: (e)

Generally, only that good feature of a product is highlighted which people crave for. So, I is implicit. Since complexion glows if circulation is improved, so II is also implicit.

Statement:
The civic authority has advised the residents in the area to use mosquito repellents or sleep inside nets as large number of people are suffering from malaria.

Assumptions:
I. Local residents have enough money to arrange for the repellents or nets.

II. People may ignore and continue to get mosquito bites as they have other pressing needs.

Answer: (a)

The civic authority has advised residents to keep away from mosquitoes to avert the risk of malaria. Such an advice would surely be adhered to by the people. So, II is not implicit. Besides, it has been advised to use mosquito repellents or nets. This means that people can afford to buy the same. So, I is implicit.

Statement:
Without reforming the entire administrative system, we cannot eradicate corruption and prejudice from the society.

Assumptions:
I. The existence of corruption and prejudice is good.

II. There is enough flexibility to change the administrative system.

Answer: (b)

The statement talks of eradicating corruption and prejudice from the society, which indicates that these aspects are undesirable. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the statement mentions about reforming the administrative system. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
“Private property, trespassers will be prosecuted” – A notice on a plot of land.

Assumptions:
I. The passerby may read the notice and may not trespass.

II. The people are scared of prosecution.

Answer: (e)

Any notice is displayed assuming that people will read the notice and also follow the content of the notice. So, I is implicit. Besides, the notice threatens any trespassers to be prosecuted. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“Avon Cycles – Fast, easy to ride, impressive, reliable, crafted and up-to-date automation.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. There is no other cycle with any of these features.

II. People do not bother about the cost.

Answer: (d)

The advertisement is for Avon cycles and nothing about the cost or the features of other brands of cycles, is mentioned. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
Kartik left for Delhi on Tuesday by train to attend a function to be held on Friday at his uncle’s house in Delhi.

Assumptions:
I. Kartik may reach Delhi on Wednesday.

II. Kartik may reach Delhi before Friday.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, it cannot be deduced as to which day Kartik would reach Delhi. But Kartik has left for Delhi to attend a function to be held on Friday. So, he must have planned his journey to reach Delhi before Friday. Thus, only II is implicit.

Statement: “If you want to give any advertisement, give it in the newspaper X.” – A tells B.

Assumptions:
I. B wants to publicise his products.

II. Newspaper X has a wide circulation.

Answer: (b)

The word 'If in the statement shows that B may or may not want to publicise his products. So I is not implicit. It is advised that advertisements be given in newspaper X. This means that X will help advertise better i.e., it has wider circulation. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
“But out of A, B, C and D products, you buy B which alone is based on the international technology.”- A shopkeeper tells a customer.

Assumptions:
I. The customers normally accept the recommendation of the shopkeeper.

II. Use of international technology is supposed to ensure better quality standards.

Answer: (e)

The shopkeeper tells the customer the merits and demerits of various products, thus making it easy for him to choose. So, I is implicit. Since the shopkeeper stresses on buying B because it is based on international technology, so II is also implicit.

Statement:
The organization should promote employees on the basis of merit alone and not on the basis of length of service or seniority.

Assumptions:
I. Length of service or seniority does not alone reflect merit of an employee.

II. It is possible to determine and measure merit of an employee.

Answer: (e)

The statement stresses on the need to award promotion to a person who has been displaying remarkable talent and performing extraordinarily for the organisation rather than the one who has been working steadily for the organisation since long. Thus, length of service does not alone prove a man worthy. His talent and his performance are the criteria to be considered. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Today I must satisfy myself only by looking at a pink headed duck in an encyclopaedia.

Assumptions:
I. Pink headed ducks are as good as extinct now.

II. People refer to encyclopaedia to know only about things which do not exist now.

Answer: (a)

Since the narrator talks of satisfying himself by just looking at a picture in encyclopaedia, it means that pink headed ducks are not to be seen alive. So, I is implicit. But II does not follow from the statement and is not implicit.

Statement:
If he is intelligent, he will pass the examination.

Assumptions:
I. To pass, he must be intelligent.

II. He will pass the examination.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that he will pass if he is intelligent. So, I is implicit. Further, this means that it is not necessary that he will pass. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“Computer education should start at schools itself.”

Assumptions:
I. Learning computers is easy.

II. Computer education fetches jobs easily.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, computer education can be started at the school level only if it is easy. So, I is implicit. In the statement, nothing is mentioned about the link between jobs and computer education. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“As there is a great demand, every person seeking tickets of the programme will be given only five tickets.”

Assumptions:
I. The organizers are not keen on selling the tickets.

II. No one is interested in getting more than five tickets.

Answer: (d)

Clearly, the organisers are adopting this policy not to reduce the sale but to cope up with great demand so that everyone can get the ticket. So, I is not implicit. Also, due to great demand, the maximum number of tickets one person can get has been reduced to five. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
Many historians have done more harm than good by distorting truth.

Assumptions:
I. People believe what is reported by the historians.

II. Historians are seldom expected to depict the truth.

Answer: (a)

The fact that historians have done harm by distorting truth, means that people believe what is reported by the historians. So, I is implicit. II does not follow from the statement and so is not implicit.