Statement and Assumption

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Give answer
(A) If only assumption I is implicit
(B) If only assumption II is implicit
(C) If either I or II is implicit
(D) If neither I nor II is implicit
(E) If both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Government aided schools should have uniformity in charging various fees.

Assumptions:
I. The Government’s subsidy comes from the money collected by way of taxes from people.

II. The Government while giving subsidy may have stipulated certain uniform conditions regarding fees.

Answer: (b)

Nothing about the source of Government's subsidy can be deduced from the statement. So, I is not implicit. However, II follows from the statement and so it is implicit.

Statement:
The two countries have signed a fragile pact, but the vital sovereignty issue remains unresolved.

Assumptions:
I. The two countries cannot have permanent peace pact.

II. The two countries may become hostile again after a short spell of time.

Answer: (b)

From the fact that the present pact is not a lasting one, the possibility of a permanent pact cannot be ruled out. So, I is not implicit. The statement mentions that the present pact is a 'fragile' one and the vital sovereignty issue still remains unresolved. So the same issue may rise again in the future. Thus, II is implicit.

Statement:
“The function will start at 3 P.M. You are requested to take your seats before 3 P.M.” – Last sentence in an invitation card.

Assumptions:
I. If the invitee is not in his seat before 3 P.M., the function will not start.

II. Function will start as scheduled.

Answer: (b)

It is mentioned that the function will start at 3 RM. and not that the invitees will be waited for. So, I is not implicit and only II is implicit.

Statement:
Lock your valuables in a cupboard and call everybody gentleman.

Assumptions:
I. Valuables locked in cupboard cannot be stolen.

II. Stealing is a crime.

Answer: (a)

The statement points out that a person who keeps his things locked away shall feel that every person is good because he has no danger for his things. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions nothing about the lawful nature of the act of stealing. So, II is not implicit,

Statement:
The General Administration Department has issued a circular to all the employees informing them that henceforth the employees can avail their lunch break at any of the half-hour slots between 1.00 p.m. and 2.30 p.m.

Assumptions:
I. The employees may welcome the decision and avail lunch break at different time’s slots.

II. There may not be any break in the work of the organization as the employees will have their lunch break at different time slots.

Answer: (b)

The employees' reaction to the new decision cannot be deduced from the statement. So, I is not implicit. However, II denotes the most probable consequence of the new decision. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
The school authorities have decided to increase the number of students in each classroom to seventy from the next academic session to bridge the gap between the income and the expenditure to a large extent.

Assumptions:
I. The income generated by way of fees of the additional students will be sufficient enough to bridge the gap.

II. The school will get all the additional students in each class from the next academic session.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, increasing the number of children in each class would increase the income and reduce the expenditure per child. But the response to the school's decision cannot be deduced. So, only I is implicit.

Statement:
Market trends are changing continuously and with increasing competitiveness, the consumer’s demands with respect to the prices and quality are gradually increasing.

Assumptions:
I. The consumers did not care for the prices and quality earlier.

II. Market competitiveness is not favourable for the consumers.

Answer: (d)

The statement talks of 'increasing demands' of consumers. It does not imply that consumers were indifferent to price and quality earlier. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the statement mentions I that increasing competitiveness has made available to consumers a wide variety of options which has led them to comparing things and choosing the one which best suits their requirements and budget. They are thus getting better 'value for their money'. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
The multinational fast food chains are opening up a large number of Plus Coffee Shops with piped modern music in different cities of India and these are serving various breakfast (snax) with coffee.

Assumptions:
I. A large number of persons may become regular customers of these coffee shops.

II. The people will like to enjoy the comfortable environment while drinking coffee with snax.

Answer: (e)

The concept of Plus Coffee Shops has been attracted to draw in more customers by providing a calm, soothing, musical environment along with a wide variety of breakfast. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
What a fool I am to rely on trickster like Shaleen !

Assumptions:
I. Shaleen is unreliable.

II. I am a fool.

Answer: (e)

Since one condemns oneself to rely on Shaleen, so I is implicit. The statement mentions that it was foolish to rely on Shaleen. So, the person is a fool. Thus, II is implicit.

Statement:
The ‘M’ Cooperative Housing Society has put up a notice at its gate those sales persons are not allowed inside the society.

Assumptions:
I. All the sales persons will stay away from the ‘M’ Cooperative Housing Society.

II. The security guard posted at the gate may be able to stop the sales persons entering the society.

Answer: (e)

Since both the assumptions follow from the given statement, so both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“Banking services are fine tuned to meet growing business needs,” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. Banking is a part of business activity

II. Industrialists prefer better banking services.

Answer: (e)

According to the statement, banking is associated with business activity. So, I is implicit. Banking is adjusted in a way to promote business needs. This means that business is promoted by better banking. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
An announcement: Passengers in their own interest are advised to fasten their seat belts while seated in the trolley of the ropeway.

Assumptions:
I. People are always careful about their own safety.

II. Unless advised, passengers might not use the seat belts.

Answer: (e)

The stress on 'in their own interest' in the statement indicates that people should use seat belts for their own safety. So, I is implicit. Besides, the announcement has been made to caution passengers to be careful if they want to enjoy a safe ride. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“In my absence, I request you to look after the affairs of our company.” – B tells C.

Assumptions:
I. may not accept the request of B.

II. C has the expertise to handle the affairs of the company.

Answer: (b)

C's response to B's request cannot be deduced from the statement. So, I is not implicit. Also, B wishes to authorise C to look after the company in his absence. This means that C is capable of handling the affairs. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Retired persons should not be appointed for executive posts in other organisations.

Assumptions:
I. Retired persons may lack the zeal and commitment to carry out executive’s work.

II. Retired persons do not take interest in the work and welfare of the new organisation.

Answer: (d)

Since both I and II do not follow from the statement, so neither of them is implicit.

Statement:
Do not copy our software without our permission – A notice.

Assumptions:
I. It is possible to copy the software.

II. Such warning will have some effect.

Answer: (e)

Since the notice warns one against copying software without permission, it is evident that software can be copied. So, I is implicit. Also, the warning is given with the motive that no one dares to copy the software. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“Best way to solve this problem of workers’ dissatisfaction is to offer them cash rewards. If this type of incentive can solve the problem in CIDCO Company then why not here.” – A Personnel Manager tells the Chairman of a company.

Assumptions:
I. The reason for workers’ dissatisfaction in both the companies was similar.

II. Monetary incentives have universal appeal.

Answer: (e)

Since the policy is expected to work just because it turned out fruitful in another company, it is evident that the problem in both companies was similar and monetary incentives always motivate workers. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
The government is making efforts to boost tourism in State X.

Assumptions:
I. Tourism in State X dropped following political unrest.

II. Special discounts in the air fare have been announced.

Answer: (d)

Efforts are being made to boost tourism does not mean that tourism has dropped. So, I is not implicit. Also, the statement mentions nothing about discounts in air fare. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
“According to me, you should get your child examined by a specialist doctor.” – A tells B.

Assumptions:
I. Specialist doctors are able to diagnose better than ordinary doctors.

II. B will certainly not agree with A’s advice.

Answer: (a)

The advice particularly mentions 'a specialist doctor' and not simply 'doctor'. So, I is implicit, B's response to A's advice cannot be deduced from the given statement. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Children, who get encouragement, usually perform better. – A note by the Principal to the parents.

Assumptions:
I. Some parents do not encourage children.

II. Parents may follow Principal’s advice.

Answer: (e)

The statement talks of the performance of children who get encouragement. It means that there are some children who are not encouraged. So, I is implicit. Also, the Principal notifies to the parents that encouragement helps children improve their performance, with the hope that they too would encourage their children. So, II is also implicit,

Statement:
A Notice Board at a ticket window: Please come in queue.

Assumptions:
I. Unless instructed people will not form queue.

II. People any way want to purchase tickets.

Answer: (e)

The instructions have been given so that people willing to buy tickets may not form a crowd. So, I is implicit. Also, it is clear that people would purchase the tickets even after following the given instructions. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Interview conducted for selecting people for jobs should measure personality characteristics of candidates.

Assumptions:
I. Performance on job depends on personality characteristics.

II. Personality characteristics can be measured in interview.

Answer: (e)

According to the statement, the personality characteristics of candidates should be essentially measured in interviews before selection for jobs. So, both I and II are implicit."

Statement:
The President assured the people that elections will be held here after every five years,

Assumptions:
I. People are afraid that the elections may not be held at all.

II. People are afraid that the elections may not be held after five years.

Answer: (c)

Clearly, the statement is made to eliminate the fear of the people that the elections may not be held at all or they may not be held after five years. So, either I or II is implicit.

Statement:
World Health Organisation has decided to double its assistance to various health programmes in India as per-capita expenditure on health in India is very low compared to many other countries.

Assumptions:
I. The enhanced assistance may substantially increase the per-capita expenditure on health in India and bring it on par with other countries.

II. The Government funding is less than adequate to provide medical facilities in India.

Answer: (e)

The fact that WHO has extended its assistance to India implies that government funding here is not adequate. So, II is implicit. Besides, WHO has decided to provide assistance to health programmes in India keeping in mind the considerably low per-capita expenditure on health. So, I is also implicit.

Statement:
A good book, even if costly, is sold.

Assumptions:
I. Some books are better than others.

II. Most of the books are costly.

Answer: (a)

The statement talks about a 'good' book. This means that some books may not be good. So, I is implicit. The words 'if costly' show that most books are not costly. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Municipal Corporation has decided to ban the entry of vehicles from sub-urban areas to the main city through main routes during peak hours to avoid traffic congestion.

Assumptions:
I. The people of sub-urban areas should not bring their vehicles during peak hours.

II. There is no traffic congestion by the vehicles of people residing in the main city.

Answer: (d)

It is mentioned that entry only through main routes has been banned. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the entry has been banned to reduce the volume of traffic on roads and ease congestion. It could only be done at the entrances to the city and not within the city itself. So, congestion by the city vehicles is unavoidable. Hence, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
The next meeting of the Governing Board of the Institute will be held after one year.

Assumptions:
I. The Institute will remain in function after one year.

II. The Governing Board will be dissolved after one year.

Answer: (a)

That the meeting of the Governing Board will be held after one year means the Institute will be functioning at that time. So, I is implicit. The Board cannot be dissolved at the time" when its meeting starts. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
A line in an advertisement in a newspaper – “You really get your money’s worth when you buy from our shop.”

Assumptions:
I. Other shops price goods above their worth.

II. People want full value for their money.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, the advertisement mentions nothing about the prices of goods in the various shops. So, I is not implicit. The advertisement is given keeping in mind the desire of the people to get full value of their money. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
It is through participative management policy alone that indiscipline in our industries can be contained and a quality of life ensured to the worker.

Assumptions:
I. Quality of life in our industries is better.

II. Indiscipline results in poor quality of life.

Answer: (b)

The statement mentions that participative management policy 'will' provide quality life to the workers. So, I is not implicit. Clearly, the statement mentions that participative management will contain the indiscipline and ensure quality life to workers. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
“You must learn to refer to dictionary if you want to become a good writer.” – A advises B.

Assumptions:
I. Only writers refer to the dictionary.

II. All writers, good or bad, refer to the dictionary.

Answer: (d)

It does not follow from the statement that only writers and nobody else refers to the dictionary. Also, nothing is mentioned about bad writers. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
A’s advice to B – “If you want to study Accounts, join Institute Y.”

Assumptions:
I. Institute Y provides good Accounts education.

II. B listens to As advice.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, A advises B to join Y because it provides good Accounts education. So, I is implicit. It is not mentioned whether B listens to A's advice or not. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“Blue tie would help us identify our staff from others.” – A suggestion in a company.

Assumptions:
I. The company needs to identify its staff.

II. Blue tie is the latest fashion.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the suggestion is given for providing a method of identification. This means that the staff needs to be identified. So, I is implicit. The statement does not mention anything about the fashion. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
There has been a remarkable increase in the air traffic in India during the past few years.

Assumptions:
I. Travelling by air has become a status symbol now.

II. Large numbers of peoples are able to afford air travel now.

Answer: (b)

The statement indicates that the number of people travelling by air has increased in the recent years. This clearly implies that large number of people can now afford air travel. So, only II is implicit.

Statement:
An advertisement in a newspaper – “Wanted unmarried, presentable, matriculate girls between 18 and 21, able to speak fluently in English to be taken as models.”

Assumptions:
I. Fluency in English is a pre-requisite for good performance as a model.

II. Height does not matter in performing as a model.

Answer: (a)

'Fluency in English' is a condition mentioned for girls to be taken as models. So, I is implicit. Since nothing is mentioned about the height, so II is not implicit.

Statement:
Deepak has a large collection of books and he keeps on purchasing new books to add to his collection.

Assumptions:
I. Deepak loves and cares for books.

II. Deepak has read each and every book that he has purchased.

Answer: (a)

The statement clearly reflects Deepak's exceptional interest in books. So, I is implicit. However, how many books of his collection he has gone through, cannot be deduced from the statement. Thus, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Science is a sort of news agency comparable in principle to other new agencies. But this news agency gives us information which is reliable to an extraordinary high degree due to elaborate techniques of verification and its capacity to survive centuries. So, science should be read with as much interest as we read news.

Assumptions:
I. Science encourages investigative spirit.

II. People read news out of interest.

Answer: (e)

The statement mentions that science is reliable as facts can be verified by investigation. So, I is implicit. II follows directly from the last sentence in the statement and so it is also implicit.

Statement:
The economic condition of the country has gone from bad to worse.

Assumptions:
I. The government has failed to tackle economic problems.

II. People are not cooperating with the government.

Answer: (a)

The statement implies that the existing economic problems have worsened. So, I is implicit. Nothing about the people's attitude is mentioned. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
No budgetary provision for the purpose of appointing additional faculty would be made in the context of institute’s changed financial priorities.

Assumptions:
I. Appointment of faculty requires funds.

II. There are areas other than appointment of faculty which require more financial attention.

Answer: (e)

The phrase 'budgetary provision for the purpose of appointing additional faculty' makes I implicit. Also, since no budgetary provision was provided for appointment of faculty in view of certain changed financial priorities, it means that some other issues require more financial attention. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The cost of living has gone up in India.

Assumptions:
I. The price of essential commodities has gone up in recent times.

II. Many luxury goods are available in plenty in the country.

Answer: (e)

The cost of living is directly associated with the prices of essential commodities. So, I is implicit. II denotes an essential consequence of rise in cost of living. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
How is it that the village is not shown in this so-called official map of this district?

Assumptions:
I. The official district map is expected to show all the villages of that district.

II. This is not an authentic and official map.

Answer: (e)

The statement expresses a doubt at the non-depiction of the village in a map which was said to be an 'official' one. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“In the recently imposed war, global public opinion was dishonoured by the economically strong and scientifically advanced superpower.”

Assumptions:
I. Superpowers need not take any heed of global public opinion.

II. Global public opinion must have been against the imposition of war.

Answer: (b)

Since discard of public opinion has invited concern, it means that superpowers too are expected to heed public opinion. So, I is not implicit. Also, the statement mentions that war has been imposed and public opinion dishonoured. This implies that global public opinion was against the war. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
“I would like to study the impact of pay revision on job satisfaction of employees.” – A tells B.

Assumptions:
I. Job satisfaction can be measured.

II. A has necessary competence to undertake such study.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, A wishes to study the degree of effect of pay revision on job satisfaction of employees. This means that job satisfaction can be measured and A is capable of making such a study. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
I can take you quickly from Kanpur to Lucknow by my cab but then you must pay me double the normal charges,

Assumptions:
I. Normally, it will take more time to reach Lucknow from Kanpur.

II. People want to reach quickly but they will not pay extra money for it.

Answer: (a)

Since the narrator asks for double charges to take the person quickly to Lucknow, it implies that normally it takes more time to reach Lucknow. So, I is implicit. Since one demands extra charges to reach the destination earlier than usual, the person in need would have to pay accordingly. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Whenever you have any doubt on this subject, you may refer to the book by Enn and Enn.

Assumptions:
I. The book by Enn and Enn is available.

II. There is no other book on this subject.

Answer: (a)

The recommendation of the book by Enn and Enn implies that it is available. So, I is implicit. Also, the book has been referred to as a good one, but this does not mean that no other books are available on the subject. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The government has decided to hold the employers responsible for deducting tax at source for all its employees.

Assumptions:
I. The employers may still not arrange to deduct tax at source for its employees.

II. The employees may not allow the employers to deduct tax at source.

Answer: (d)

Such decisions are implemented by the government as laws, which are binding on both the employers and the employees. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
All the employees are notified that the organisation will provide transport facilities at half cost from the nearby railway station to the office except those who have been provided with travelling allowance.

Assumptions:
I. Most of the employees will travel by the office transport.

II. Those who are provided with travelling allowance will not read such notice.

Answer: (a)

The facility given by the office shall be an added privilege and many employees will avail of the same. So, I is implicit. Also, the statement 'All the employees are notified.....' implies that the notice is for all the employees. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Highly brilliant and industrious students do not always excel in the written examination.

Assumptions:
I. The written examination is good mainly for mediocre students.

II. The brilliant and industrious students cannot always write good answers in the exam

Answer: (b)

II explains the fact given in the statement and so is implicit. Nothing about 'mediocre students' is mentioned in or can be deduced from the given statement. So, I is not implicit.

Statement:
Many people have expressed surprise as the princess has broken the royal tradition of marriage by choosing a commoner as her life partner.

Assumptions:
I. People expect royal families to observe customs and traditions.

II. People still value ‘purity of royal blood’ and ‘status’ when it comes to a marriage of members of royal family.

Answer: (e)

Since the princess' step has been taken by surprise, it is evident that she was not expected to marry a commoner but a person of equivalent 'status*. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Believe me, I have read it in newspaper X.

Assumptions:
I. Newspaper X gives reliable information/news.

II. I am reporting exactly as it is given in newspaper X.

Answer: (b)

The narrator in the statement clearly insists on the reliability of the fact that what he said, he had read it in newspaper X, and not on the truth of what he said. So, only II is implicit

Statement:
The entire north India, including Delhi and the neighbouring states remained ‘powerless’ the whole day of 19th December as the northern grid supplying electricity to the seven states collapsed yet again.

Assumptions:
I. The northern grid had collapsed earlier.
II. The grid system of providing electricity to a group of states is an ineffective type of power supply system.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that the northern grid collapsed 'yet again'. This means that it had collapsed earlier also. So, I is implicit. Also, the statement talks of a particular fault in the system but does not condemn the grid system. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“To keep myself up-to-date, I always listen to 9.00 p.m. news on radio.”- A candidate tells the interview board.

Assumptions:
I. The candidate does not read newspaper.

II. Recent news is broadcast only on radio.

Answer: (d)

The candidate listens to news on the radio does not mean that he does not read newspaper or that radio is the only source of recent news. So, neither I nor II is implicit.