Statement and Assumption

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Give answer
(A) If only assumption I is implicit
(B) If only assumption II is implicit
(C) If either I or II is implicit
(D) If neither I nor II is implicit
(E) If both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
Read this notice before entering the club.

Assumptions:
I. People are literate.

II. No blind person comes to the club.

Answer: (e)

The notice is meant for the people to read. So, it is assumed that the people are literate and I is implicit. Since the notice is to be read by everyone entering the club, so it is assumed that no blind person comes to the club. Thus, II is implicit.

Statement:
The Union Government has decided to withdraw existing tax relief on various small savings schemes in a phased manner to augment its tax collection.

Assumptions:
I. People may still continue to keep money in small savings schemes and also pay taxes.

II. The total tax collection may increase substantially.

Answer: (e)

The statement mentions that withdrawing tax relief on small savings schemes would help increase tax collection. This implies that the government would then earn tax on income derived from small savings schemes. So, I is implicit. Besides, II follows directly from the statement and so it is also implicit.

Statement:
Use PVC pipes which have 10 years longer life to any other.

Assumptions:
I. People prefer only those pipes which are durable.

II. Other pipes are not durable.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the choice of the people. It is simply an advice. So, I is not implicit. Clearly, the other pipes are not as durable as the PVC pipes. So, II is implicit.

Statement: T
here is no reason to rule out the possibility of life on Mars. Therefore the exploration of that planet has to be undertaken.

Assumptions:
I. There is life on Mars.

II. The search for life is the sufficient reason for space exploration.

Answer: (e)

According to the statement, the possibility of life on Mars cannot be ruled out. So, I is implicit. Also, the statement mentions that the planet should be explored to probe for any life present. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“A visit of school children to forest to widen their knowledge of natural resources has been arranged.” – A notice in the school.

Assumptions:
I. Forests are full of natural resources.

II. Children are likely to learn from their interaction with the new environment.

Answer: (e)

The forests shall be visited to increase the knowledge of natural resources. This means that forests abound in natural resources. So, I is implicit. The children are being taken to forests to help them learn more practically. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The electric supply corporation has decided to open a few more collection centres in the business district area.

Assumptions:
I. The people in the area may welcome the decision.

II. Henceforth there may be less time required by the customers for paying electricity bill.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, more collection centres would enable the common people to pay their bills easily, conveniently and quickly and this would cause them to welcome the idea. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
The host in one of the popular T.V. programmes announced that the channel will contact the viewers between 9.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. on weekdays and the lucky ones will be given fabulous prizes.

Assumptions:
I. The people may remain indoors to receive the phone call.

II. More people may start watching the programme.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the organisers of the programme have adopted the viewer interaction scheme and announced prizes for some lucky viewers so that more people are enticed into staying at home and viewing the programme. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
No regular funds have been provided for welfare activities in this year’s budget of the factory.

Assumptions:
I. The factory does not desire to carry out welfare this year.

II. Budgetary provision is necessary for carrying put welfare activities.

Answer: (e)

The non-provision of funds for welfare activities in the budget clearly indicates the factory's intention to not carry out such activities in the current year. So, I is implicit. Also, welfare activities cannot be carried out in organisations without the allocation of funds for the same in the budget. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“If you want timely completion of work, provide independent cabins,” – An employee tells the Director of a Company.

Assumptions:
I. There are not enough cabins.

II. Others’ presence hinders timely completion of work.

Answer: (e)

The statement clearly hints at the need for cabins. So, I is implicit. Since independent cabins are expected to improve efficiency, it means that others' presence hinders work. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
“Though the candidates have been instructed to bring pencils, yet provide some pencils with each invigilator.” – An instruction to test administration staff.

Assumptions:
I. Pencils are in short supply.

II. All the candidates will bring the pencil.

Answer: (d)

Nothing about the availability of pencils is mentioned in the statement. So, I is not implicit. Also, in the statement, the staff has been instructed to provide pencils with each invigilator. This means that despite being instructed, all the candidates might not bring the pencil. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
Ministry has announced an economic package to support the voluntary organisations. – An official notice,

Assumptions:
I. Voluntary organisations do not need such support.

II. Government was not supporting the voluntary organisations earlier.

Answer: (b)

Since the Ministry has decided to support the voluntary organisations, it is quite probable that they are in need of it. So, I is not implicit. Further, since the economic package for the voluntary organisations has been announced recently, it can be assumed that no such support was given to them earlier. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
“X air-conditioner – the largest selling name with the largest range.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. X air-conditioner is the only one with wide variations.

II. There is a demand of air-conditioners in the market.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, the advertisement does not mention the word 'only' i.e. other air-conditioners may also have wide variations. So, I is not implicit. Also, the advertisement is given so that the people know about that which they demand. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
The product X that you have asked for is not with us but can be made available against firm order from you.

Assumptions:
I. The product X is not in great demand.

II. The product X is out of stock as new model is coming up.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that the seller does not keep product X in ready stock and intends to provide the same only against a confirmed order from the customer. So, I is implicit However, II appears to be vague in this context.

Statement:
“It has become a necessity to computerize all the functions of our Institute to maintain the present position.” – A statement of the Director of XYZ Institute.

Assumptions:
I. Unless computerized, the Institute will fall behind the race.

II. The functions of the Institute are too complex to be handled manually.

Answer: (e)

The Director asserts that computerization is essential to maintain the present state of affairs in future. This means that the Institute will lag behind in the absence of computerisation. This in turn implies that the functions of the Institute are too cumbersome and time-consuming and can be handled in time only through computers. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“Everyone desires to buy a personal computer”, statement of a college student.

Assumptions:
I. Personal computers are not a need but a luxury.

II. Use of personal computers improves quality of skill.

Answer: (d)

Nothing about the need or utility of personal computers can be deduced from the given statement. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
The civic authority appealed to the people for reduction in usage of water as there may be an acute shortage during the coming weeks.

Assumptions:
I. There will be no rain in recent future.

II. The people are ready to follow the advice of the civic authority.

Answer: (b)

Clearly, I is not directly related to the issue in the given statement and so it is not implicit. The civic authority makes an appeal to the people with the hope that it would surely be attended to by the people. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
If Rajan has finished reading the instructions, then let him begin the activities accordingly.

Assumptions:
I. Rajan would understand the instructions.

II. Rajan is capable of performing the activities.

Answer: (e)

According to the statement, Rajan can begin the activities according to the instructions. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
If the city bus which runs between Ram Nagar and Sant Colony is extended to Vasant Vihar, it will be convenient. – Appeal of residents of Ram Nagar to the city bus company.

Assumptions:
I. The convenience of the city bus company is much more important than the needs of the consumers.

II. The city bus company is indifferent to the aspirations of the residents of Sant Colony.

Answer: (d)

Clearly, the city bus company is meant to provide bus services according to the needs of the local residents and not as per their own convenience. So, I is not implicit. Again, the statement talks of an appeal of a resident of Ram/Nagar. So, nothing can be said about the company's response to appeals of the Residents of Sant Colony. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
“Present day education is in shambles and the country is going to the dogs.”

Assumptions:
I. A good education system is essential for the well-being of a nation.

II. A good education alone is sufficient for the well-being of a nation.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the statement mentions the degradation of the country with the disruption of the education system. So, I is implicit, However, it does not mean that education alone is sufficient and no other factor is responsible for the well being of the nation. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Equality of income throughout a community is the essential condition for maximising the total utility which the total income available could confer on the members of that community.

Assumptions:
I. If extra income were taken from the rich and given to the poor, the total utility experienced by the community would increase.

II. Equal pay for equal work.

Answer: (a)

The total utility can be maximised by equality of income throughout the community, i.e., by giving extra income from the rich to the poor. So, I is implicit. Also, II pertains to economic right and is not concerned with equality of income throughout the community. So, it is not implicit.

Statement:
“If it does not rain throughout this month, most farmers would be in trouble this year.”

Assumptions:
I. Timely rain is essential for farming.

II. Most farmers are generally dependent on rains.

Answer: (e)

It is mentioned that farmers will be in trouble without rain. This means that timely rain is essential. Also, it shows that farmers are dependent on rain. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“Two months ago, it was announced that Central Government pensioners would get dearness relief with immediate effect but till date, banks have not credited the arrears.” – A statement from a Pensioners’ Forum.

Assumptions:
I. Most of the banks normally take care of the pensioners.

II. Two months time is sufficient for the government machinery to move and give effect to pensioners.

Answer: (b)

I is vague and so it is not implicit. The statement expresses grave concern over the pensioners not having received clearness relief even two months after the implementation of the policy. This implies that two months' time is sufficient and it's already too late. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
The economic prosperity of any nation is dependent on the quality of its human resources.

Assumptions:
I. It is possible to measure the quality of human resources of a nation.

II. Achieving economic prosperity is a cherished goal of every nation.

Answer: (a)

I follows from the statement and so is implicit. But the status of economic prosperity as a nation's goal is not discussed in the statement. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The taste of food contributes to the intake of nourishment which is essential for the survival of human beings.

Assumptions:
I. Human beings take food for the enjoyment of its taste.

II. Human beings experience the taste of food.

Answer: (b)

It is mentioned that nourishment is essential for survival. So, this is the basic cause of intake of food. Hence, I is not implicit. Since taste of food affects the intake of nourishment, it means that human beings are affected by taste. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
In view of the violent situation due to students’ agitation the state government has decided to close down all the educational institutions in the state for two weeks with immediate effect.

Assumptions:
I. The students’ agitation may subside after two weeks.

II. The students may not find a place to come further and continue agitation after the closure of the educational institutions.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, in such situations, closure is followed so as to prevent any untoward incident and with the hope that the stipulated time of closure is sufficient to settle the agitation by mutual talks or by adopting pressure tactics, as the agitators have no grounds to vent their anger due to closure of institutions. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
An advertisement: “Our shoes are for the rich.”

Assumptions:
I. Many people like to be labelled as rich.

II. One can’t become rich unless one has that brand of shoes.

Answer: (a)

The statement stresses on the point that this particular brand of shoes is worn by affluent and upper-class people as they are good-quality shoes. And an advertisement highlights the feature which most people desire. So, I is implicit. But it doesn't mean that one has to have those shoes to be called 'rich'. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
Money is the root cause of all the problems in a family.

Assumptions:
I. Every problem is caused by something.

II. There are always some problems in a family.

Answer: (d)

The statement mentions the cause of family problems and does not deal with all the problems. So, I is not implicit. Also, it is mentioned that money is the cause of family problems. But this does not mean that problems always exist in a family. So, II is also not implicit.

Statement:
The head of the organization congratulated the entire staff in his speech for their sincere effort to bring down the deficit and urged them to give their best for attaining a more profitable position in future.

Assumptions:
I. The employees may get motivated and maintain and if possible enhance their present level of work.

II. The employees may now relax and slow down in their day to day work as there is no immediate threat of huge deficit.

Answer: (a)

The appreciation received from the head of the organization would surely motivate the employees to keep up their spirits and strive hard for the progress of the organization. So, only I is implicit.

Statement:
With a sense of sincerity, quality teachers can improve the society.

Assumptions:
I. Quality teachers are sincere.

II. Sincerity in teaching pays.

Answer: (b)

The statement emphasises that quality teachers can help reform society if they are sincere enough in teaching. This implies that quality teachers may or may not be sincere. So, I is not implicit. However, II directly follows from the statement and so it is implicit.

Statement:
The improvement in the quality of T.V. programmes will lead to increase in the sales of T.V.

Assumptions:
I. T.V. is a good entertainment medium.

II. The quality of T.V, programmes has improved recently.

Answer: (a)

The improvement in quality of programmes will increase the sale shows that it is in great use. So, I is implicit. Nothing is mentioned of recent changes. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
An advertisement: If you want to follow the footprints of an ideal leader, wear ‘X’ brand of shoes.

Assumptions:
I. Most people like to become ideal leaders.

II. One can’t become ideal leader unless one wears X brand of shoes.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the advertisement mentioned here is merely a catchy slogan, and attempt has been made to touch the deep desire of the masses to draw their attention towards the product. So, only I is implicit.

Statement:
“The programme will start at 6 p.m. but you can come there up to 7 p.m. or so and still there is no problem.”

Assumptions:
I. The programme will continue even after 7 p.m.

II. The programme may not even start by that time.

Answer: (a)

The statement mentions that there is no problem if one comes upto 7 p.m. also. This means that the programme will continue even after 7 p.m. So, I is implicit. Also, it is clearly mentioned that the programme will start at 6 p.m. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
“Fly X airways whenever you decide to go places. Our fares are less than train fares.”- An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. People prefer to travel by air when the fares are reasonable.

II. The fares of other airlines are costlier than those of X airways.

Answer: (e)

The advertisement highlights the fact that fares of X airways are less than train fares. This implies that people would prefer to travel by air rather than by train if they do not have to pay extra for it. So I is implicit. Besides, this feature also reveals that fares of X airways are lower than those of other airlines. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
The new education policy envisages major modifications in the education system.

Assumptions:
I. Present education system is inconsistent with national needs.

II. Present education system needs change.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, modifications are made in present system finding that it was inconsistent with the needs and required to be changed. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
The higher echelons of any organization are expected to be models of observational learning and should not be considered as merely sources of reward and punishments.

Assumptions:
I. Employees are likely to be sensitive enough to learn by observing the behaviour of their bosses.

II. Normally bosses are considered as sources of reward and punishment.

Answer: (e)

The statement advises people not to consider their bosses as mere 'supervisors' to control and assess their acts, but as 'models' to imitate in their working. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“Get rid of your past for future, get our new generation fridge at a discount in exchange of old”- An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. The sales of the new fridge may increase in the coming months.

II. People prefer to exchange future with past.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the scheme would encourage those owning an old fridge to go for a new one at a reasonable price without the hassles of disposing off the old one. So, I is implicit. Besides, an advertisement highlights that which appeals to masses and which customers crave for. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Amongst newspapers, I always read the National Times.

Assumptions:
I. The National Times gives very comprehensive news.

II. Some people prefer other newspapers.

Answer: (b)

The statement does not mention any quality of the National Times. So, I is not implicit. According to the statement, amongst all newspapers, the narrator reads the National Times. This means that some people read other newspapers. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Neither fascism nor communism has any chance of succeeding in America.

Assumptions:
I. American people are strongly in favour of preserving the rights of the individual.

II. Americans have so far not suffered any pangs of poverty or deprivation.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, fascism and communism are against the preservation of individual rights. So, I is implicit. Nothing is mentioned about the economic condition of America. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
The private bus service in the city has virtually collapsed because of the ongoing strike of its employees.

Assumptions:
I. Going on strikes has become the right of every employee.

II. People no more require the services of private bus operators.

Answer: (d)

Since both the assumptions do not follow from the given statement, so neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
The office building needs repairing just as urgently as it needs internal as well as external painting.

Assumptions:
I. Efficiency of people working in the office cannot be improved unless office building is repaired.

II. Repairing and painting of office building require funds.

Answer: (d)

Clearly, nothing can be deduced regarding the effect of repairs of office building on efficiency of workers, or the requirement of funds for repairs, from the given statement. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
The integrated steel plants in India would no longer have to depend on imports for continuous casting refractories.

Assumptions:
I. Continuous casting refractories are needed by India.

II. Continuous casting refractories are in demand.

Answer: (e)

The statement mentions the self-sufficiency of India in continuous casting refractories. This means that they are needed in the country. So, I is implicit. Since continuous casting refractories are needed in integrated steel plants, it means they are in demand. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
To investigate the murder of the lone resident of a flat, the police interrogated the domestic servant, the watchman of the multi-storeyed buildings and the liftman.

Assumptions:
I. The domestic servant, watchman and the liftman can give a clue about the suspected murder.

II. Generally in such cases the persons known to the resident are directly or indirectly involved in the murder.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, in such cases, the police interrogates the domestic servant, watchman and liftman to work out the sequence of events just before the murder by tracing the persons who had come to meet the victim. So, I is implicit However, it is erroneous to assume that persons known to the victim are generally involved in the murder. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
It is not true that the mightiest superpower always wins wars and gets accolades from other countries.

Assumptions:
I. Winners are sometimes admired and appreciated.

II. Winners are occasionally criticized.

Answer: (e)

The statement mentions that superpowers do win wars but their victory is not always applauded, but sometimes criticized as well in case the victory is an act of oppression of the weaker nation, and is not backed by a reasonable cause. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
The government has decided to reduce its subsidy on LPG; however the subsidy on kerosene remains unchanged.

Assumptions:
I. Those people who buy LPG can afford to purchase LPG for a higher price.

II. Many people may stop buying LPG and instead use kerosene.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, the decision has been taken keeping in mind that the section of people using LPG can afford to pay a slightly higher price. The government does not want to affect the weakest sections who still use kerosene. So, only I is implicit, while II is not.

Statement:
In Bombay, railway trains are indispensable for people in the suburbs to reach their places of work on time.

Assumptions:
I. Railway trains are the only mode of transport available in the suburbs of Bombay.

II. Only railway trains run punctually.

Answer: (b)

That the railway trains are indispensable for people to reach the place on time does not mean that there are no other means of transport but shows that trains alone run on time. So, I is not implicit and only II is implicit.

Statement:
In spite of poor services, the commutators have not complained against it.

Assumptions:
I. Generally people do not tolerate poor services.

II. Complaints sometimes improve services.

Answer: (a)

The statement expresses an expectation of complaints from the people against poor services. So, I is implicit. But the effect of complaints cannot be deduced. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
If you are an engineer, we have a challenging job for you.

Assumptions:
I. We need an engineer.

II. You are an engineer.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, job is offered to an engineer. This means that he is needed. So, I is implicit. The word 'If' in the statement makes II not implicit.

Statement:
In spite of less than normal rainfall in the catchment areas during the first two months of monsoon of the lakes supplying water to the city the authority has not yet affected any cut in the water supply to the city.

Assumptions:
I. The rainfall during the remaining part of the monsoon may be adequate for normal water supply.

II. The present water level of the lakes supplying water to the city may be adequate for normal supply.

Answer: (e)

The statement clearly indicates that at present the water level of the lakes is adequate. There is nothing of a shortage to induce a cut in water supply and still there is time to wait and watch the performance of rains during the remaining monsoon period. So, both I and II are implicit.

Statement:
“Please put more people on the job to make up for the delay.”

Assumptions:
I. Delay is inevitable in most jobs.

II. Output will increase with more number of people on the job.

Answer: (b)

The advice tells to 'make up for the delay' showing that delay is not to be done. So, I is not implicit. Since increase in number of people will make up for the delay, it means the output will increase with this increase in number. So, II is implicit.

Statement:
Sachin’s mother instructed him to return home by train if it rains heavily.

Assumptions:
I. Sachin may not be able to decide himself if it rains heavily.

II. The trains may ply even if it rains heavily.

Answer: (b)

Sachin's mother has instructed him as a matter of caution and out of care for her child, and not because Sachin himself would not be able to decide. So, I is not implicit. Besides, Sachin's mother instructs him to take to train journey in case it rains heavily. So, II is implicit.