Statement and Assumption

In each question below is given a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I, II and III. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions, decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement and choose your answer accordingly.

Statement:
To improve the employment situation in India, there is a need to recast the present educational system towards implementation of scientific discoveries in daily life.

Assumptions:
I. The students after completing such education may be able to earn their livelihood.

II. This may bring meaning of education in the minds of the youth.

III. The state may earn more revenue as more and more people will engage themselves in self-employment.

Answer: (b)

The statement mentions that such education can improve employment situation. So, both I and II are implicit. Nothing about the aspect of revenue collection is mentioned in the statement. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
The employees association has appealed to the Managers of Company Z to introduce written examinations for clerical cadre recruitment to prevent selection of incompetent persons.

Assumptions:
I. So far the Company Z used to select candidates without conducting a written examination.

II. A written examination can help to identify competent persons.

III. At higher level, written examination may not be of much use.

Answer: (a)

An appeal has been made to 'introduce' written examination. This means that so far written examination was not conducted. So, I is implicit. II follows directly from the statement and so it is implicit. However, nothing can be deduced about the mode of selection at higher level. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
Unable to manage with the present salary, Arun has decided to join another company.

Assumptions:
I. The new company has better work environment.

II. The present company offers moderate pay packets.

III. The new company offers higher salary to all its employees.

Answer: (b)

Nothing about the environment in the new company is mentioned in the statement. So, I is not implicit. Since Arun is not satisfied with the present Salary, it is evident that the present company offers moderate pay packets. So, II is implicit. The statement talks only of Arun and not all the employees of the new company. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
“Buy pure and natural honey of company X.” – An advertisement in a newspaper.

Assumptions:
I. Artificial honey can be prepared.

II. People do not mind paying more for pure and natural honey.

III. No other company supplies pure honey.

Answer: (a)

Artificial honey can be made. That is why the word 'natural' needs to be mentioned in the advertisement. So, I is implicit. No comparison is made of the prices of natural and artificial honey. So, II is not implicit. Nothing about the quality of honey of other companies can be deduced. So, III is also not implicit.

Statement:
The X passenger car manufacturing company announced a sharp reduction in the prices of its luxury cars.

Assumptions:
I. There may be an increase in the sale of luxury cars of Company X.

II. The other such car manufacturers may also reduce their prices.

III. The competitor companies may not reduce their prices.

Answer: (e)

The reduction in prices is clearly a step to promote sales of the company. So, I is implicit. However, other companies may or may not follow the same pursuit. So, either II or III is implicit.

Statement:
The economic condition continues to be critical even after a good harvest season.

Assumptions:
I. The economic condition was not critical before the harvest season.

II. The economic condition could not have improved without a good harvest season.

III. The economic condition was expected to improve after a good harvest season.

Answer: (d)

It is mentioned that 'the economic condition continues to be critical'. This means that it was critical before the harvest season also. So, I is not implicit. Also, the statement does not imply that only a good harvest season could improve the economic condition. So, II is not implicit. However, since a surprise has been expressed over the condition being critical even after a good harvest season, it means that it was expected to improve after a good harvest season. So, III is implicit.

Statement:
The company has recently announced a series of incentives to the employees who are punctual and sincere.

Assumptions:
I. Those who are not punctual at present may get motivated by the announcement.

II. The productivity of the company may increase.

III. The profit earned by the company may be more than the amount to be spent for the incentive programmes.

Answer: (a)

Announcing incentives for punctual and sincere employees would surely motivate more and more employees to be punctual, and this will ensure productivity. So, both I and II are implicit. However, the statement does not give any information about the profit earned by the company. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
An advertisement: Now you can own a new car in just Rs. 1,999 per month.

Assumptions:
I. People aspire for owning a car.

II. People do not want to buy used cars.

III. Most people can afford to pay Rs. 1,999 per month for a new car.

Answer: (d)

The advertisement has been given seeing the demand for cars. So, I is implicit. The advertisement stresses on 'owning a new car'. This implies that people would prefer to buy a new car rather than a used one, provided it suits their budget. So, II is implicit. The words 'just Rs. 1,999 per month' in the statement make III implicit.

Statement:
Give this packet to Mr. X at his residence and return immediately. In case you are likely to be late inform me – Mr. A tells his clerk.

Assumptions:
I. The clerk never informs about his late coming.

II. The clerk may not obey Mr. As instructions.

III. The clerk may not inform his late coming unless instructed.

Answer: (d)

Clearly, the statement is merely a reminder. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the clerk is expected to execute his boss' order. So, II is not implicit. Also, a hunch that the clerk may not inform about his late coming has led Mr. A to instruct the clerk to do so. So, III is implicit.

Statement:
Considering the tickets sold during the last seven days, the circus authorities decided to continue the show for another fortnight which includes two weekends.

Assumptions:
I. People may not turn up on weekdays.

II. The average number of people who will be visiting circus will be more or less same as that of the last seven days.

III. There may not be enough response at other places.

Answer: (c)

Clearly, the fortnight would include weekdays also. So, I is not implicit. Also, the authorities decided to continue the show with the hope that people would visit the circus in the same numbers as they had done in the last seven days. So, II is implicit. III is vague and so is not implicit.

Statement:
State Council For Teacher Education (SCTE) has laid down guidelines in respect of minimum qualifications for a person to be employed as a teacher in universities or in recognised institutions.

Assumptions:
I. The authorities will now appoint only qualified teachers.

II. Only qualified people will apply for the teaching post.

III. SCTE decides all the norms of educational qualifications for teaching faculty.

Answer: (e)

Since the SCTE has laid down the necessary qualifications for a person to be employed as a teacher in all universities and institutions, so all are implicit.

Statement:
The civic authority has decided that all the factories located inside the city limits be shifted outside to reduce the level of environmental pollution in the city.

Assumptions:
I. The pollution level in the city in future may reduce after these factories are shifted outside the city limit.

II. Enough usable land is available outside the city limit for these factories.

III. Many of these factories may shift to some other smaller towns to remain profitable.

Answer: (b)

I directly follows from the statement and so is implicit. The decision to shift factories on the outskirts of the city must have been taken after taking into account the availability of land there So, II is implicit. Nothing can be assumed as to what strategy would the factory owners adopt in future. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
Quality of life of a person is not dependent only on his wealth.

Assumptions:
I. The aim of most people is just to acquire more wealth.

II. There are some factors other than wealth which contribute to the quality of life.

III. Wealth does not contribute to the quality of life at all.

Answer: (c)

Clearly, I does not follow from the statement. So, it is not implicit. The statement mentions that quality of life does not depend only on wealth. This means that there are some other factors as well, which govern the quality of life. But this does not imply that wealth does not contribute at all. So, II is implicit while III is not.

Statement:
“Use Riya cold cream for fair complexion.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. People like to use cream for fair complexion.

II. People are easily fooled.

III. People respond to advertisements.

Answer: (d)

Assumption I follows from the statement and so it is implicit. II is vague and so it is not implicit. Also, advertisements are given with the hope that people would know the qualities of the product and buy it. So, III is implicit.

Statement:
“If you are a mechanical engineer, we want you as our supervisor.” – An advertisement by Company X.

Assumptions:
I. Mechanical engineers are expected to be better performers by Company X.

II. The Company X needs supervisors.

III. Mechanical engineers may get attracted and apply to Company X.

Answer: (d)

Clearly, the company lends more importance to mechanical engineers. This shows that they are believed to perform better. So, I is implicit. Also, the advertisement is given because the company needs supervisors. So, II is implicit. Further, the advertisement is meant to attract only mechanical engineers for the vacancy in company X. Hence, III is also implicit.

Statement:
Bill Clinton is the second democrat to be re-elected as President of America, the other being the legendary Roosevelt.

Assumptions:
I. Clinton has the same qualities that Roosevelt had.

II. The majority of people in America have faith in Clinton.

III. The election campaign of Clinton’s rivals was not impressive.

Answer: (b)

The statement simply mentions that Clinton and Roosevelt were the only two persons who were re-elected as President of America. But this does not imply that they were liked by the public for the same reasons or qualities. So, I is not implicit. However, it is clear that that majority of people adore Clinton. So, II is implicit. Nothing about the reasons of Clinton's victory or the election campaign of Clinton's rivals can be assumed from the given statement. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
A State Government suspended two additional district judges.

Assumptions:
I. They were negligent in discharging duties.

II. There was a charge of misconduct against them.

III. The government officials were biased against them.

Answer: (b)

A person holding an office is generally suspended on charges of misconduct or negligence of duty. So, either I or II is implicit. III seems to be vague and so it is not implicit.

Statement:
The successful man has the ability to judge himself correctly.

Assumptions:
I. Inability to judge correctly causes failure.

II. To judge others is of no use to a successful man.

III. The successful man cannot make a wrong judgement.

Answer: (b)

Assumptions I and III directly follow from the statement and so both are implicit. Also, the basic quality of a successful man is that he can judge himself. This means that he need not judge others. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
Ten candidates, who were on the waiting list, could finally be admitted to the course.

Assumptions:
I. Wait-listed candidates do not ordinarily get admission.

II. A large number of candidates were on the waiting list.

III. The number of candidates to be admitted is small.

Answer: (a)

Since the wait-listed candidates have been admitted, so I is not implicit. Also, nothing about the number of candidates on the waiting list or the number to be admitted can be deduced from the statement. So, neither II nor III is implicit.

Statement:
The university Authority has decided to decentralize conduct of terminal examinations and give this responsibility to each college for its students to avoid delay in declaration of results.

Assumptions:
I. The colleges are equipped to carry out this responsibility.

II. There may not be uniformity in evaluation standard across the colleges.

III. The students may welcome this new development.

Answer: (d)

The university must have taken this decision keeping in mind the efficiency of the colleges. So, I is implicit II is vague and is not implicit. The statement mentions that the new policy would help avoid delay in declaration of results. So, III is also implicit.

Statement:
The school authority decided to open a summer school this year in the school compound for the students in the age range of 7 – 14 years.

Assumptions:
I. All the students will attend the summer school.

II. All the parents will prefer to remain in the city than going out of town for enabling their children to attend the summer school.

III. Those who cannot afford to go out of station will send their children to summer school.

Answer: (a)

The statement talks of the policy of opening a summer school. But the response of the children and their parents cannot be deduced from it. So, none is implicit.

Statement:
‘Move into the upper echelons without paying a steep price – Book a luxurious flat with us’. An advertisement of a construction company for its prestigious project.

Assumptions:
I. It is possible to join the select band of rich people by hard work.

II. Staying in luxury without paying steep price is the criterion of upper crust of the society.

III. Booking a luxurious flat is very easy now.

Answer: (c)

The statement advocates that a person can upgrade to a high life style by paying a low price to book a luxurious, upper-class flat. S6, III is implicit, However, nothing about the nature of the upper-class or the ways of becoming rich can be assumed from the given statement. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Statement:
The national air carrier has decided to start a weekly air service from town A to town B.

Assumptions:
I. There will be enough passengers to make the operation economically viable.

II. Other carriers may not start such service.

III. The people staying around these towns can afford the cost of air travel.

Answer: (e)

The firm has decided to start the air service. This implies that there are enough passengers and people in towns A and B can afford to travel by air. So, I and III are implicit. Assumption II is vague and so it is not implicit.

Statement:
The address of the Principal to the students, “Dear students, if you want a healthy mind, listen to music.”

Assumptions:
I. Normally students like to follow good advice.

II. It is desirable to develop a healthy mind.

III. It is the duty of the Principal to advise the students.

Answer: (a)

The Principal has advised the students regarding their welfare. This implies that students like to follow good advice. So, I is implicit. Since the Principal stresses on having 'a healthy mind', it implies that students desire for the same. So, II is implicit. However, the Principal has given the advice out of deep concern for his students and not because it is his duty. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
“As our business is expanding, we need to appoint more staff.” Owner of a company informs his staff.

Assumptions:
I. The present staff is not competent.

II. More staff will further expand the business.

III. Suitable persons to be taken as staff will be available.

Answer: (d)

The statement mentions that the present staff is insufficient, not incompetent. So, I is not implicit. Also, the purpose for appointing more staff is to control the expanding business, not to expand it further. So, II is not implicit. Since the company owner talks of appointing more staff, so III is implicit.

Statement:
“Z-T.V, the only T.V. which gives the viewers a chance to watch two programmes simultaneously.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. Sale of Z-T.V will increase because of the advertisement.

II. Some people may be influenced by the advertisement and buy Z-T.V.

III. The sale of Z-T.V. may be on the downward trend.

Answer: (d)

The effect of the advertisement cannot be deduced. So, I is not implicit. However, the advertisement is given so as to influence people and encourage them to buy Z-T.V. So, II is implicit. Also, it is quite possible that the sale of Z-T.V. is declining, which has provoked the company owners to advertise for their products. So, III is implicit.

Statement:
Keeping in view the financial constraints, the management institution has decided to charge at the time of providing employment in various organisations, a placement fee of Rs. 25000 from the organisations in which the student will be provided the employment.

Assumptions:
I. It will help in increasing the demand of the students belonging to the management institution.

II. The amount collected in this way will be purposeful.

III. It may be possible that the organisation providing employment may select less number of students in future.

Answer: (d)

Since the management has imposed a fee of Rs. 25000 for the employment of each student by the organisation, so III is implicit while I is not. Since the statement mentions that the fee is being charged to cover up the financial constraint, so II is implicit.

Statement:
“Television X – the neighbour’s envy, the owner’s pride” – A T.V. advertisement.

Assumptions:
I. Catchy slogans appeal to people.

II. People are envious of their neighbours superior possessions.

III. People want to be envied by their neighbours.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, both I and II directly follow from the statement. Also, it is clear that people wish to buy a thing which they can be proud of. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
The situation of this area still continues to be tense and out of control. People are requested to be in their homes only.

Assumptions:
I. There had been some serious incidents.

II. People will not go to the office.

III. Normalcy will be restored shortly.

Answer: (b)

The statement mentions that situation in the area is tense. So, I is implicit. Since people have been requested not to go out and remain in homes for safety, so II is implicit. It cannot be inferred when the normalcy will be restored. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
The professor announced in the class that the next periodical examination will be held on 15th of the next month.

Assumptions:
I. All the students may appear in the examination.

II. The college will remain open on 15th of the next month.

III. The students can study till 15th of the next month to pass the examination.

Answer: (c)

The statement mentions only the schedule of the examination. But this doesn't ensure full attendance of students on that day. However, this implies that the college will remain open on the date of examination to hold the same and that the students can study till that date to pass the examination. Hence, only II and III are implicit, while I is not.

Statement:
“Put. a notice on the board that all the employees should come on time to office.” – An officer tells his assistant.

Assumptions:
I. All the employees come late.

II. Employees read such notice on the board.

III. Employees will follow the instructions.

Answer: (c)

The notice directs all the employees to come on time. This does not mean that all of them come late. So, I is not implicit. Since the officer orders the assistant to put the notice on the board, it is evident that the employees read such notice on the board. So, II is implicit. Also, the employees have to comply with the orders of the officer. So, III is implicit.

Statement:
Ravi decided to leave office at 4.00 p.m. to catch a flight to Bangalore departing at 6.00 p.m.

Assumptions:
I. The flight to Bangalore may be delayed.

II. He may be able to reach airport well before 6.00 p.m.

III. He may get adequate time to search for a vehicle to go to the airport.

Answer: (c)

I cannot be assumed from the given statement and so it is not implicit. Also, knowing that his flight is scheduled to depart at 6 p.m., Ravi would leave accordingly, keeping enough time to search for a vehicle and to reach the airport well before time. So, both II and III are implicit.

Statement:
“All are cordially invited to attend the entertainment programme. It is free.” – An announcement in a newspaper.

Assumptions:
I. People generally do not go to entertainment programmes which are free.

II. Some people, though interested in entertainment programmes, cannot afford purchasing the tickets.

III. Generally, a free entertainment programme is of a good quality.

Answer: (c)

Since the announcement invites the people to the programme saying that it is free, so I is not implicit while II follows. The quality of the programme is not being talked about in the statement. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
These apples are too cheap to be good.

Assumptions:
I. When the apple crop is abundant, the prices go down.
II. The lower the selling price, the inferior is the quality of the commodity.
III. Very cheap apples are also good.

Answer: (c)

It is mentioned that the apples are so cheap that they cannot be good. This means that the prices of good apples are never too low and that very cheap apples are never good. So, neither I nor III is implicit. Assumption II clearly follows from the statement that apples are of inferior quality because they are cheap. So, it is implicit.

Statement:
The Central Government has directed the State Governments to reduce government expenditure in view of the serious resource crunch and it may not be able to sanction any additional grant to the states for the next six months.

Assumptions:
I. The State Governments are totally dependent on Central Government for its expenditures.

II. The Central Government has reviewed the expenditure account of the State Government.

III. The State Governments will abide by the directive.

Answer: (b)

Nothing about the sources of income of the State Governments is mentioned in the statement. So, I is not implicit. Since the Central Government has directed the State Governments to reduce expenditure, so II is implicit. Further, since the Central Government has refused any further grant to the State Governments for the next six months, it is quite clear that these Governments will abide by the directive. So, III is also implicit.

Statement:
“To make the company commercially viable, there is an urgent need to prune the staff strength and borrow money from the financial institutions.” – Opinion of a consultant.

Assumptions:
I. The financial institutions lend money for such proposals.

II. The product of the company has a potential market.

III. The employees of the company are inefficient.

Answer: (c)

Since the consultant talks of borrowing money from financial institutions, so I is implicit. That the owners wish to make the company 'commercially viable' makes II implicit. Also, it is mentioned that staff strength is to be reduced to make the company 'commercially viable'. So, III is not implicit.

Statement:
Pramod decided to get the railway reservation in May, for the journey he wants to make in July, to Madras.

Assumptions:
I. The railways issues reservations two months in advance.

II. There are more than one trains to Madras.

III. There will be vacancy in the desired class.

Answer: (a)

Clearly, since Pramod decides to get the reservation in May for the journey in July, so I is implicit. The number of trains to Madras or the position of vacancies in different classes cannot be deduced from the given statement. So, neither II nor III is implicit.

Statement:
“A rare opportunity to be a professional while you are at home.” – An advertisement for computer literate housewives by a computer company.

Assumptions:
I. Some housewives simultaneously desire to become professional.

II. Computer industry is growing at a fast pace.

III. It is possible to be a professional as well as a housewife.

Answer: (c)

Clearly, a company would highlight only that feature in its advertisement which people crave for and which it can make possible. So, both I and III are implicit. Nothing can be deduced about the growth of computer industry. So, II is not implicit.

Statement:
‘Several labour and industrial courts in this State have no proper premises. Vacancies of judges and stenos are kept pending.’ – A statement of a retired judge of State X.

Assumptions:
I. Adequate number of staff and judges helps in the smooth functioning of the industrial and labour courts.

II. The State is not bothered about the condition of the labour and industrial courts.

III. Physical facilities of an office help in increasing efficiency of its employees.

Answer: (d)

The statement expresses grave concern over the lack of proper premises and inadequate staff in labour and industrial courts. This implies that adequate staff is a must to serve the purpose of these courts and a proper office only can ensure their smooth functioning. So, both I and III are implicit. The lack of facilities to the courts also indicates the state's negligent attitude to the condition of the courts. So, II is also implicit.

Statement:
In order to reduce the gap between income and expenditure, the company has decided to increase the price of its product from next month.

Assumptions:
I. The rate will remain more or less same after the increase.

II. The expenditure will more or less remain the same in near future.

III. The rival companies will also increase the price of the similar product.

Answer: (e)

Clearly, the company intends to reduce the gap between income and expenditure by increasing the price of its product i.e. by keeping the expenditure unaltered and increasing the income only. So, II is implicit while I is not. However, the rival companies may or may not follow the same pursuit. So, III is not implicit.